13 · Appendices



Adûnaic — The tongue of the Númenoreans and later the Dúnedain and the descendants of the King’s Men (called Black Númenoreans by the Faithful).


Apysaic — The common tongue of the South. Most of the People of Southern Middle-earth can understand even some Apysaic, since it was the common language of the men who entered this region in the Second Age.


Kwenja — The language of the Avar Elves of the region.


Kiranaic — Originating from Apysaic, Kiranaic is the mother-tongue of the Kirani in Southern Middle-earth.


Mûmakanin — The language of the Mûmakani.


Quenya — The original language of the Noldor.


Sindarin — The language of the Sindar of Beleriand.


Westron — The common language of Northwestern Middle-earth in the Third Age.



(Q. Holy Spirits”) The Divine servants of Eru, born out of Eru’s thought. Although they are formless spirits, they have male and female genders and are capable of assuming corporeal form. Most of the Ainur reside with Eru in the Timeless Halls outside Arda, but a few — the Valar and Maiar — reside in Arda. The Ainur are also called the Holy Ones”, the Singers”, or the Spirits”.


(Q. Blessed Realm”)The great continent west of Middle-earth. Here the Valar made their home after the destruction of the Two Lamps. After the downfall of Númenor it is removed from the visible world and only those Elves weary of Middle-earth still may reach it.


(Q. The Place”, The Realm”) The entire physical world created by Eru to be the kingdom of Manwë, including Endor (Middle-earth) and Aman, but not Menel (Heaven). In the First Age and most of the Second Age, it is circular and flat; but after the Downfall of Númenor it is remade as a sphere.


(Ad. King’s Men”) This is the label of the the descendants of the Kings Men” in Númenor for themselves; those that spoke against the Ban of the Valar and made an aggressive and brutal policy of imperialism in Endor. When Númenor sank, these men survived in colonies throughout the coastal lands of Middle-earth. Tantûrak is such a former colony where the descendants of the Black Númenoreans form an aristocracy that holds the reins of power.
They call themselves Arûwaini, but as most of the traditional history of Middle-earth is written by the Dúnedain, they are labeled Black Númenóreans” (S. Mornúmenedain”) which implies a certain amount of prejudice and opposition aginst this group.


(Q. Refusers”, sing. Avar”) The Avari constitute the majority of the Firstborn in Middle-earth. All of the Elves who are not Eldar (q.v.) are Avari. In turn, all of the Avari are Moriquendi or Dark Elves”, because they never saw the light of the Two Trees.


(S. Mighty Sea”, aka Sundering Sea”) The ocean west of Middle-earth, the Belegaer separates Endor from Aman (the Undying Lands”). The waters of the Belegaer meet those of the Haragaer to the southwest at Cape Metharn (Hyarnúmente).

Children of Ilúvatar

Also Children of Eru: translations of Híni Ilúvataro and Eruhíni. Comprising the Firstborn and the Followers, Elves and Men, they are also called the Children, Children of the Earth, Children of the World.


Originally descendants of Castamir (“The Usurper”) of Gondor and his followers, the Captains who fled Gondor in the latter days of the Kin-strife (T.A. 1432 – 1447). This group seized control of Umbar in T.A. 1448. Thereafter they became associated with marine raiding and were labeled Corsairs”. The term later became associated with any pirates based in Umbar or along the coasts of Harad.


(S. Men of the West”, sing. Dúnadan”) These High Men are descendants of the Edain who settled the western island continent of Númenor in S.A. 32. The Dúnedain returned to explore, trade with, colonize, and later conquer many areas along the coasts of Endor during the Second Age. Unfortunately their hubris and desire for power — guided by the still fair-seeming Sauron (q.v.) — led them to attempt an invasion of the Valar’s Undying Lands. As a result, Eru destroyed their home island in S.A. 3319, thereby also destroying Saurons fair form. Those called the Faithful” opposed the policies and Elf-hatred that prompted this Downfall”. The Faithful were saved when Númenor sank, sailing east to Northwestern Middle-earth. There they founded the Realms in Exile”, the kingdoms of Arnor and Gondor. Many of the King’s Men (or Black Númenoreans”, q.v.) survived as well, living in colonies and independent states such as Umbar, Tantûrak or Ciryatandor.

(Q. Existence”) Eä, literally, It is” or Let it be”, was the word of Eru when the World (and universe if you like) began its existence. Eä is all that is, the whole of Eru’s creation and includes Arda and the Heaven (S. Menel”). Born out of the great Music (Ainulindalë) that defined the divine order of existence, it remains bound by the patterns (Essence) of the Song. Outside Eä are the Timeless Halls of Eru as well as the Timeless Void (Nothingness).


(Q. Elves”, People of the Stars”) The immortal Children of Ilúvatar. Fair of skin and nearly immune to age and devoid of any physical sickness they are the most gifted of the Free Peoples. In a closer sense, only those Elves who began (and most of them completed) the Great Journey to the Undying Lands are counted among the Eldar. The Vanyar, Noldor and Teleri comprise the three kindreds of the Eldar. Those that made the journey to Aman are counted as Calaquendi” or Light Elves” because they saw the light of the Two Trees of Valinor which lighted the world by that time (see also sect. 2.2 Timeline).
The Elves are bound by fate and remain in the world even after they die, waiting to be reincarnated in the Halls of Awaiting in western Aman.


(Q. The One”, He that is Alone”, Q. Ilúvatar”) The creator of Eä. Ilúvatar is translated as Father of All”.

First Age

The First Age of Middle-earth. It began with the growing of the Two Trees (s.b.) and ended with the overthrow of Morgoth (Melkor) by the Host of Valinor in the War of Wrath.

Free Peoples

The good” races of Middle-earth: Elves, Dwarves, Hobbits and Men (especially the Dúnedain); in a closer sense those races which are in opposition to Sauron.


(S. Shadow-elves”, sing. Kinn-lai”) The Kinn-lai are a secretive Avar people who reside in and around the forest of Tâliran. They form the vast majority of the Firstborn in this region and are of the same branch of the Avari as the Kinn-lai of Valagalen in Drel (see ICE’s Shadow in the South).
The Kinn-lai belong to the Nelyarin Avari (the proto-Teleri) and are thereby kin to the Sindar.


(Sing. Maia”)The lesser Ainur who entered Arda. They serve the Valar in their task of guardianship. From this order five were selected to go to Middle-earth and combat Sauron after his return in the Third Age. These were called the Istari (S. Wizards”). The ignorant call the Maiar Lesser Gods”. Some Maiar followed Morgoth on his path. Prominent examples are Sauron of Mordor and the Balrogs. Morfuin and Airatano of the Court of Ardor are also (lesser) Maiar.


(Q. Atani”, Fírimar”) The Secondborn Children of Ilúvatar. They are mortal and less gifted than the Elves. They die of old age and sickness and are weak compared by Elda standards. But in contrast to the Elves, fate does not hold absolute sway over them and they leave the world when they die, to join Eru in his halls.


(Q. The Black Enemy”, aka Melkor (Q. He who arises in might”) Most powerful and gifted of the Ainur. The renegade Vala who coveted lordship over the world, and possibly all existence. Morgoth was the embodiment and focus of Darkness — evil incarnate — and established lordship over northern Middle-earth during the time before the First Age of the Sun. First he ruled from his northeastern fortress at Utumno. After the awakening of the Elves, the Valar made war on him, destroyed his fortress Utumno (the so-called Battle of the Powers”) and imprisoned him in Valinor. Later he was pardoned and lived in Aman beside the Valar, Maiar, and Elves. Again he sowed evil and finally destroyed the Two Trees (s.b.), stole the Silmarils (s.b.) and fled to Middle-earth. For this reason the Noldor warred against him and in the end lost. But the Valar found mercy with the Elves and their mannish allies and sent a great host to overthrow Morgoth in a climactic battle. After his defeat he was cast outside the world into the Timeless Void (see Eä”) and cannot return as long as the Sun and Moon remain aloft.
Morgoth created many foul races by perverting the living (for he could not create life himself), orcs in mockery of elves, trolls as the dark counterparts of ents etc.
Sauron, Morgoths most powerful servant survived the cataclysm of his master’s downfall and carried on the legacy of evil for the Second and Third Age.


see entry for Thúle.


(Q. The Abhorred”, aka The Dark Lord”, The Shadow”, The Lord of the Rings”) A Maia who served Morgoth in the First Age and survived the downfall of his master. In the Second Age he lured the Elves of Eregion into making Rings of Power for the Free Peoples, but created the Master Ring himself to rule all the other rings. Because the Elven Rings were very powerful, the One had to be overwhelming and Sauron placed much of his own essence in it. The Elves resisted his trap however, as they took off their rings. Sauron made war on them and was able to capture the Nine Rings and six of the Seven. These fifteen he gave to great lords of men (the Nine) and dwarves (the Seven) in hope of ensaring them (the mightiest of the Seven was given to the King of Khazad-dûm by the elven Smiths themselves). The Dwarves resisted because they were (and are) difficult to control and do not succumb to foreign control. The Nine Rings worked better and those lords who used them became the Nazgûl (Mo. Ringwraiths”), Sauron’s most heinous servants. In the land Mordor he built his fortress Barad-dûr (S. Dark Tower”).
Sauron was defeated three times in the Second Age, first by the Elves of Lindon and their Númenorean allies, second by the Númenoreans under Ar-Pharazôn and third by the Last Alliance of Men and Elves. Each time however, he returned to power. With the Downfall of Númenor however, he lost the ability to assume a fair-seeming form. In the Third Age he was finally defeated with the destruction of the Ruling Ring.
The lidless eye (normally red upon black) was his symbol. He was responsible for creating two superior variants of creatures spawned by Morgoth: the Uruk-hai (Great Orcs) and the Olog-hai (Black Trolls). Both were formidable fighters and immune to sunlight, which seriously curtailed the usefulness of their lesser brethren.

Second Age

The second recorded age of Middle-earth. It began with the founding of the Grey Havens in Lindon and ended in the War of the Last Alliance when Sauron was defeated and the One Ring taken from him by Isildur.


(Q. Shining Brilliance”) Three jewels of unsurpassed beauty. They were made by the great Noldo craftsman Fëanor. In these jewels some light of the Two Trees was encased. After the death of the Two Trees the Silmarils were stolen by Morgoth and brought to Middle-earth. This act was the main reason for Fëanor to lead the Noldor back to Middle-earth and wage war against Morgoth. Many of those who became later Lords of Ardor followed him on this march.


(S. Grey Elves”, sing. Sinda”, aka Elves of Twilight”). A branch of the Teleri that never made the final journey to Aman but stayed in Beleriand (then the westernmost part of Middle-earth) with their king Elwë. They are of the Moriquendi, but because of their exalted position with a Calaquendi king and a Maia queen they are counted as more sophisticated than the Avari (but still less knowledge­able than the Calaquendi of Aman).

Third Age

The third recorded Age of Middle-earth. It began with the defeat of Sauron at the hands of the Last Alliance and ended with the passing of the Ringbearers over the sea.


Thúle is the vital energy which holds body and soul together, though it is not identical to the soul (Q. óre). The principal difference between the óre and thúle is that the latter may be transferred, used up or otherwise spent” as a quantity of energy, whereas the former does not possess quantity, but is the essential core of a person’s being, indestructible even by God. The active aspect of thúle is the will.
Through acts of vile sorcery thúle may be used as energy to effect some magical phenomenon. Such practices are most effective with mortal thúle, since it is Men’s unique doom that their óre escapes the circles of the world permanently and irrevocably as soon as the link between body and soul is severed (unless God or the Valar directly intervene). Elven thúle is less prone to sorcerous abuse since it is their nature to be reincarnated in Aman should they die in Middle-earth before the end (only the Houseless who refuse the summons to Mandos are exempt here; their thúle may be used as that of mortals). Accordingy elven thúle is only of limited value to a sorcerer.

Two Lamps

The great artificial lights built by the Valar when they resided in Almaren. The northern was called Illuin, while the southern was named Ormal. They were destroyed by Melkor, and the destruction wrought upon the land by their fall marred Arda forever and destroyed the Valar’s home at Almaren. Subsequently the Powers retreated to Aman.

Two Trees

When Morgoth (then still called Melkor) destroyed the two lamps that lit the world, the Valar retreated to Aman and made their home there. At the request of Manwë, Yavanna caused two trees (one of silvery, one of golden shine) to grow in the plains of Valinor. These trees gave light to the world (although only a dim luminescence filtered through to Middle-earth). The trees were later destroyed by Morgoth and the huge demon-spider Ungoliant.


(Q. Those with Power”, The Powers”, sing. Vala”) The greater Ainur who entered Arda. Originally fifteen individuals, but after Melkor fell from grace, he was counted as one of the Great Enemies and so fourteen Valar remained (seven male, seven female). They acted as the supreme guardians of Arda. No power in Arda could withstand their combined might. It was them who sent the Istari to Middle-earth to combat Sauron after his reappearance in the Third Age. The ignorant call the Valar gods”.


(Q. Land of the Valar”) The portion of Aman where the Valar made their capital and residence. Most of the Maiar and all of the Vanyar Elves live here as well. It was here where the Two Trees grew.


Weapon Table Used Fumble Armor Type
1 – 4

5 – 8

9 – 12
Lango (Q. Broadsword”) bs 4 +15 +15 +15
Megil (S. Sword”) bs 4 +15 +5 +5
Andmacil (Q. Long Sword”) th 5 +10 +5 +5
» Avar longsword bs 3 +5 +5 +5
Sinymacil (S. Short Sword”) ss 3 +15 +10 +10
» Sinda axe ha 3 +5 +5 +5
» Sinda great axe ba 5 +5 +10 +5
Sely (Q. Dagger”) ra 2 +15 +15 +10
Sil (S. Dagger”) mg 1 +10 +10 +10
Ehte (Q. Spear”) sp 4 +15 +10 +5
Andhete (Q. Long Spear”) la 6 +5 +5 -
Vilekko (Q. Air Spear”) ja 3 +10 +10 +10
Quinga (Q. Bow”) lb 4 +15 +10 +10
Cú (S. Bow”) cb 4 +10 +10 +5
Sinyacú (S. Short Bow”) sb 3 +10 +10 +5


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