02 · The Land
A Traveller’s guide to the Mûmakan area
(S. “Exalted Land”) The tropical region south of the Yellow Mountains, comprising Ûsakan, Mûmakan, Koronandë, Dûshera, Gan and Tuktan. An old term of the Elves who arrived here first and gave the land they loved this name. This appellation is now almost forgotten except by the Elves.
Name of the country called Far Harad by the Dúnedain. It lies in the arid region north of the Ered Laranor and on the coast of the great inlet of the Belegaer.
- Ciryatandor (Anbalukkhôr)
(S. “Land of the Silent Wind”) An elven isle in the Haragaer. Its inhabitants openly opposed the Court in the late Second Age and their land was destroyed by a catastrophic outburst of a volcano long believed to be dead.
A region in southern Middle-earth, lying on the strategic route between the southern coast and the Yellow Mountains. Since its inhabitants lack the strength to carve out a strong leadership it is often dominated by other realms, notably Mûmakan.
An autonomous state and region just south of the Ered Laranor and north of Mûmakan. Its capitol is Tarû-Makar on a southern spur of the Yellow Mountains.
Fallen realm in southern Middle-earth. Its core territory is widely covered by a swamp and the old capitol of Gaven lies rotting somewhere in this area.
(S. “Stone-land”) Also known as the South Kingdom, Gondor is the great Dúnadan realm that lies west of Mordor and north of the Bay of Belfalas. Osgiliath on the Anduin serves as the Gondorian capital until T.A. 1640, when the throne is moved to Minas Anor (later called Minas Tirith). Pelargir on the Anduin is Gondor’s chief port.
(S. “Water of Living”) Located next to “Fuinur’s Well” (see ICE’s Hands of the Healer), this location is the last remnant of the primeval water of Almaren under the Mirror of Fire in Far Harad.
(S. “South”) Dúnadan name for the vast region located south of the river Harnen. A generalization for a number of states and territories. Although (periodically) autonomous, Umbar lies in Harad.
(S. “South Sea”) The ocean south of Middle-earth, part of the Ekkaia or “Encircling Sea”. The waters of the Haragaer meet those of the Belegaer to the west at Cape Metharn (Hyarnúmente).
A realm in southern Middle-earth. It lies on a small peninsula to the southwest of Mûmakan and south of Koronandë. Its capital is Tanith.
- Hyarn (Khâradûnê)
An Apysaic-speaking branch of men living all over southern Middle-earth. The Pel, Drel and Adena of the Seven lands (see ICE’s Shadow in the South) as well as the inhabitants of Koronandë and to a lesser extent those of Mûmakan and Tantûrak belong to the Kirani.
A realm in southern Middle-earth. One of the very few republics in Endor. It is settled mostly by the Kirani. Its capital is the great city Korlan.
The second House of the Dwarves. The tribe moved south under his first king Bávor “The Swift” and made their home in the central Yellow Mountains. After a dispute and the murder of their king Bávor IV. in T.A. 1092 the tribe split into three factions, the largest of which moved south and founded the city of Blackflame in the Seven Lands (see ICE’s Shadow in the South).
(Q. “Endórë”; S. “Endor”, aka “the Middle Land”). One of the continental land masses found in Arda. Before the Fall of Númenor the only continent beside Aman, but after the Akallabeth, new lands were formed and the world remade. So, in the Third Age it is not the entirety of the (mortal) world, although the actions found in The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings are set in northwestern Middle-earth. Also called the Hither Lands, the Outer Lands, the Great Lands and Endor.
A country in southern Middle-earth. Its name comes from the Giant Elephants (Mûmakil) who make their home there. In a wider sense this term is used for all the hot and humid lands south of the Yellow Mountains (parts of Tumag, Ûsakan, Tantûrak, Tâliran, Koronandë, Hathor, Dûshera, Gan, Tuktan and — of course — Mûmakan itself). Amaru is the capital and holy city of Mûmakan (in a closer sense).
- Mirëdor (Zimrathâni)
The Númenórean colony in southwestern Endor. See ICE’s Shadow in the South for details upon this region.
(S. “West-land” or “Westernesse”) The large, fertile island continent located in the middle of the Belegaer from its creation at the beginning of the Second Age until its destruction in S.A. 3319. See “Dúnedain” above.
A realm in southern Middle-eart. It typically encompasses the lands between the Pel Dûshera and the western border of Ûsakan and at times great parts of Tumag and Dûshera. Its capital is Sarûl at the mouth of the river Theliant.
A region in southern Middle-earth. It lies between Mûmakan, Koronandë and Dûshera. Settled mostly by Kirani.
(S. “Fate”) Greatest Númenorean port in Middle-earth. Over the years of the Second Age it was made a great fortress of the Númenoreans. After the Downfall of Númenor many of the Kings’ Men survived here and made war against the Dúnedain. The surrounding coastal region located in western Harad and south of the Bay of Belfalas is counted as the territory of Umbar.
The lands between the river Tumakal in the west and the Theliant in the east.
- Yellow Mountains
(S. “Ered Laranor”, Q. “Orolarni”, K. “Mablâd”, Ap. “Manjano Malimavi”) Known for their yellowish, loam-producing rock and their myriad ecosystems, the Orolarni run eastward from the Cape of Sare and bend across south-central and southwestern Middle-earth. Minyadhras, the western- and southernmost peak in the range, rises near the cape called Metharn (S. “South’s End”, Q. “Hyarnúmente” or “Mentelenari”) at the southwestern tip of the middle continent. The Yellow Mountains separate the hilly, humid realms along Endor’s southern coasts from the drier reaches of Far Harad and the neighboring lands of Isra, Chennacatt, Ciryatandor, Hyarn, Elorna, Mirëdor, and Drel. Alpine in character, they rise to heights of well over 10.000 feet (3.000m). Their higher peaks are snow-capped year round.
Climate of the Mûmakan area
In a word, hot. The area of this module lies between c. 15 and 20° northern latitude and is thereby comparable in climate to the north of Latin America (e.g. Guatemala) and the Carribean Sea or parts of central Africa (e.g., Khartoum or Dakar). The warm climate characterizes not only the geogrphy of the region but also the inhabitants and their way of life.
|Valime (Winter)||60 – 65 · 15 – 18 Cloudy Rain Calm||30 – 40 · −1−4 Cloudy Rain · Snow Windy||40 – 55 · 4 – 13 Partly Cloudy Light Rain Windy||45 – 55 · 7 – 13 Partly Cloudy Light Rain Windy|
|Narvinye (Winter)||60 – 70 · 15 – 21 Cloudy Rain Calm||40 – 55 · 4 – 13 Perfect — Breezy||45 – 60 · 7 – 15 Partly Cloudy Light Rain Windy||50 – 60 · 10 – 15 Perfect — Breezy|
|Nenime (Spring)||65 – 75 · 18 – 24 Overcast Downpours Breezy||50 – 60 · 10 – 15 Cloudy Rain Windy||60 – 70 · 15 – 21 Cloudy Rain High Winds||55 – 70 · 13 – 21 Cloudy Rain Windy|
|Sulime (Spring)||70 – 80 · 21 – 27 Overcast Downpours Breezy||60 – 70 · 15 – 21 Cloudy Rain Windy||70 – 80 · 21 – 27 Partly Cloudy Light Rain High Winds||70 – 80 · 21 – 27 Partly Cloudy Light Rain Windy|
|Viresse (Spring)||75 – 85 · 24 – 29 Cloudy Rain Breezy||65 – 75 · 18 – 24 Partly Cloudy Light Rain Breezy||75 – 85 · 24 – 29 Perfect — Windy||80 – 90 · 27 – 32 Perfect — Breezy|
|Lotesse (Summer)||80 – 90 · 27 – 32 Cloudy Rain Calm||70 – 80 · 21 – 27 Partly Cloudy Light Rain Calm||85 – 95 · 29 – 35 Perfect — Breezy||90 – 100 · 32 – 38 Perfect — Breezy|
|Narie (Summer)||85 – 95 · 29 – 35 Cloudy Rain Calm||80 – 90 · 27 – 32 Partly Cloudy Light Rain Calm||90 – 100 · 32 – 38 Perfect — Breezy||90 – 105 · 32 – 41 Perfect — Breezy|
|Cermie (Summer)||85 – 95 · 29 – 35 Cloudy Rain Calm||70 – 80 · 21 – 27 Cloudy Light Rain Calm||85 – 95 · 29 – 35 Perfect — Breezy||85 – 100 · 29 – 38 Partly Cloudy Light Rain Breezy|
|Urime (Fall)||80 – 90 · 27 – 32 Overcast Downpours Calm||65 – 75 · 18 – 24 Partly Cloudy Light Rain Breezy||75 – 85 · 24 – 29 Partly Cloudy Light Rain Windy||80 – 90 · 27 – 32 Partly Cloudy Light Rain Windy|
|Yavannie (Fall)||75 – 85 · 24 – 29 Cloudy Downpours Breezy||60 – 70 · 15 – 21 Cloudy Rain Breezy||70 – 80 · 21 – 27 Perfect — High Winds||75 – 85 · 24 – 29 Perfect — Windy|
|Narquelie (Fall)||70 – 80 · 21 – 27 Overcast Rain Breezy||50 – 60 · 10 – 15 Partly Cloudy Light Rain Breezy||65 – 75 · 18 – 24 Partly Cloudy Light Rain High Winds||65 – 80 · 18 – 27 Perfect — Windy|
|Hisime (Fall)||70 – 80 · 21 – 27 Loudy Rain Calm||40 – 50 · 4 – 10 Cloudy Rain Breezy||55 – 65 · 13 – 18 Partly Cloudy Light Rain Windy||55 – 70 · 13 – 21 Partly Cloudy Light Rain Windy|
|Ringare (Winter)||65 – 75 · 18 – 24 Cloudy Rain Breezy||30 – 40 · −1−4 Cloudy Rain · Snow Breezy||50 – 60 · 10 – 15 Partly Cloudy Light Rain Windy||50 – 60 · 10 – 15 Perfect — Windy|
General weather patterns
|Perfect||20% Clouds (10% Rain)|
|Partly Cloudy||30% Clouds|
|Overcast||80% Clouds (often very heavy cloudcover)|
|Light Rain||20% Raining|
|Downpours||80% Raining (often heavy downpours)|
|Rain/Snow||30% Precip. (20% rain; 10% snow)|
|Calm||0 – 5 mph (0 – 8 km/h) winds predominate|
|Breezy||5 – 20 mph (8 – 32 km/h) winds|
|Windy||10 – 40 mph (16 – 64 km/h) winds|
|High Winds||20 – 60+ mph (32 – 100+ km/h) winds|
Key to weather chart: (percentages indicate amount of time in a given month for a given condition’s presence)
The chart above reflects general weather patterns in the Mûmakan. Locally there might (and will be) divergences from this general patterns.
It should be noted that these are not rigid figures, and there is always the chance that an extreme stormsystem or clearing front will create exceptions to these guidelines.
Note that precipitation comes in sudden, heavy rains which last for less than an hour, but are very frequent. Cloudcover in the jungle is hazy at best, darkly overcast at worst. The skies really only clear over the coast and plains.
Humidity is very high all year in the rainforest; but does drop in the cooler months in other areas.
The calendar used above is a thirteen month lunar calendar of the Eldar, used by the Eldar of the Court. Tâliran uses its own Avarib names and Koronandën names are based to a good degree upon these Avarin model.
Tantûrak bases his calendar upon the old Númenórean system while the Mûmakanril use a system similar in structure, but the months, of course, have different names. Each month has twenty-eight days (four weeks of seven days each) corresponding to the phases of the moon. The first of each month is a new moon. There is one day, after the 28th of Ringarë and before the first of Valimë, which is New Year’s, and corrects the calendar. Every four years there are two such days.
A great part of Tantûraks territory is comprised of jungle. The coastlands, courses of the various rivers, and the foothills of the Yellow Mountains contain the largest cleared land portions and are consequently most densely settled. The reason for the still large jungle areas are mainly threefold:
- Some areas are haunted by dangerous creatures and the Tantûraki have found it not worth the effort to evict them.
- Once cleared of the forest, jungle soil erodes and becomes barren (only protected areas are used agriculturally).
- The pressure to colonize every part of the realm within the borders is not strong enough to justify the effort.
Accordingly Tantûrak’s population is concentrated in two main areas: the lands directly south of the Yellow Mountains and the coastlands.
In general, Tantûrak is a pleasant land with a favorable geography (soil quality, economics, etc.) that enables the emperor to stand his ground in the grand politics of the region. The heritage of old Númenór (though greatly diminished) still lends the Emperor an edge in regional politics.
The geography of the Kirani republic is marked by extensive rainforests, lush riverside areas and bountiful coasts. In terms of soil quality Koronandë’s territory is more or less average, but the benefits from the trade and oversea ventures far outweigh the shortage of of native fertile land.
Koronandë faces a similar problem as Tantûrak concerning its area. Much of the land within the state’s boundaries is jungle and only areas beside rivers (notably the Koros) and the coast are open to habitation. The Kirani’s solution to this problem differs quite from the Tantûraki one. Since the Kirani were from the beginning a sea-loving and economically gifted race they migrated to other areas of the reagion and thereby evaded the problem of overpopulation.
Mûmakans geography is dominated by the contrast of savanna and jungle. Roughly half of the Mûmakan is open savanna where nomadic Mûmakanril tribes hunt for their living and jungles similar to the ones found in Tantûrak and Koronandë. The other half is characterized by jungle very similar to the ones found in Koronandë and Tantûrak.
The vast elevated plain of central Mûmakan is a savanna, the outskirts of which are punctuated by irregular rocky hills. The northern half of the plain is dominated by the Kann-Shamûrda, a collection of vast lakes. The Mûmakanian uplands descend into small coastal plains covered with dense tropical rainforest. The climate of the whole region is subtropical and dry, making it a suitable home for lions, leopards, jackals, rhinos, giraffes, zebras, antelopes and, of course, the huge mûmakil from which the land derives its name.
The other lands in the area are quite similar to the ones already mentioned. Ûsakan and Gan are both dominated by the southern foothills of the Yellow Mountains and thus a little cooler than the rest of the countries. Tuktan, Dûshera, and Geshaan are very similar to Mûmakan and Koronandë in geographical layout.
Flora and Fauna
The Mûmakan and Ûsakan area is one which holds a great variety of environments within a relatively small area: treeless plains, sandy coasts, humid jungles and hilly vales. As is typical for subtropical regions, myriads of plant and animal species make their home here and as can be imagined, to describe all of these ecosystems in detail could consume entire volumes. With this in mind, the following paragraphs are a brief discussion of each of the various environments and some special and/or typical floristical and faunistical species, that can be found there.
The shores of the land are for the most part sandy beach, except for the southern coast of the Mûmakan peninsula itself, which is rather rocky, and rises to sheer cliffs of up to 300’ (90m) in certain areas. This region is honeycombed with cliffside caves and grottoes, remnants of ancient volcanic flows. Wild grassy areas prevail as one moves inland, but on occasion the rampant foliage of the jungle runs fairly close to the beach edge. More often however, there are merely scattered palms, pines, and other hardy scrublike types of vegetation. Sharks and other large predatory fish are extremely rare in the bay and coastal areas, although they may be encountered beyond the ten-mile point. Fish on the other hand, are plentiful and harvested by Hathor and Koronandë.
This plant grows in the shadowier parts of coastal areas such as cliffs, rocks and forest edges. The root, if made into a paste and applied to a bleeding wound, will stop the bleeding in 3rds. The bleeding is only stopped, not healed, so the patient may not move lest destroying the effect (AF 7).
The beatiful flower of this rare plant shows itself only on the shores of swampy ocean regions, where it grows in the vicinity of more abundant reeds. The reed, when brewed and applied to a wound, will repair any shattered bone in 10 – 100 minutes (AF 15).
This medicinal herb grows in areas where the low vegetation comes near to the ocean’s shores. The leaves of this grass, when brewed and ingested will act as the spell Lifekeeping for 24 hrs (AF 25)
Abundant on the ocean coasts, the Hugar plant grows to a height of c. 3 feet (1m). When the root is brewed, and the extract drunk it acts as a powerful sedative: the patient sleeps instantly and one hour sleep equals 6 of normal sleep. This drug is sometimes used by military commanders to force their troops to perform tasks normally not possible (AF 33).
One of the more infamous plants is this scrub which grows in areas where the forest comes near to the shore. Its leaves, when dried and burned, develop a relaxing smoke, which leaves the user nearly ignorant of his surrounding (-75) for 1 – 6 minutes. The drug is often used during stenuous tasks, because it triples the recovery of exhaustion points (AF 5).
(Q. “Ulmodili”, sing. “Ulmodil”) — No water creature is as intelligent or blessed as the Ulmodil, the beautiful blue and white Dolphin (Porpoise). Seaborne mammals, they are servants of Ulmo (as opposed to Ossë) and fast allies of the Teleri. Their complex society and wide-ranging schools enable them to act with startling unity when summoned by their master or friends, or when aroused by their enemies.
The gregarious Ulmodili live in hierarchical groups of 10 – 200 individuals, which in turn join to form schools of 100 – 2.000 creatures. Playful and agile, they roll and leap along the surface of the open sea, moving at speeds of up to 20 miles an hour (32km/h, 17kn). When they submerge, they can dive as deep as 1.000 feet (300m) and stay down for as long as five minutes before they need to resurface (they breathe through lungs, not gills).
The six to seven feet (1,8 – 2,1m) long Ulmodili have smooth blue (top) and white (bottom) skin and a long beaked snout. This snout is a formidable, mace-like weapon that contain an array of short, sharp teeth. Its bulging forehead encases a pad of fat that houses a sonar-like organ that enables the creature to detect objects with stunning accuracy.
- Eris Squid
This small (about one foot · [30cm · ] in length) tentacled sea creature is found along the Mûmakanril coast, in the warm South Sea. It is hunted by alchemists and others who prepare magical substances from its ink. The exact use of this solution in magical preparations is not known to those outside this region of Middle-earth. Mûmakanril and Kirani however, prize the substance for its ability to produce camouflage paste and invisible ink.
(S. “Aeg-crúmor”, pl. “Aeg-crymyr”) — Also called the Turtle-fish or “Fastitocalon”, these rare but formidable creatures grow as large as fifty feet (15m) in length. They live in deep waters but, when hungry or angry, they may swim closer to the coast. There, they hunt everything from large fish to smaller boats piloted by foolish seamen.
- Iron Unbirds
(Q. “Angusaiwéli”) — These nine to eighteen inch (25-45cm) long animals belong to the most resilient, advanced and common reptiles (Q. “Rávatsa”, pl. “Rávatsar”) in Endor. They constitute a unique branch and are closely related to flightless birds.
There are four species found in the Mûmakan, which are differentiated by their form of locomotion: one species runs on four legs, two only on their hind legs and one hops. The latter lives near the water, especially along rocky seashores. All other Unbirds have exaggerated hind legs and walk upright, using their tail for balance. They are very agile and the swiftest can reach paces of about 15 miles an hour (25km/h).
Poisonous carnivores, Unbirds hunt lizards, frogs, birds, large insects and small mammals. They have very sharp teeth and curving, retractable, viper-like fangs. When facing foes, though, they bite their prey while keeping these foreteeth hidden in pockets in their upper jaw. They prefer to swallow their victim whole. Against larger foes, they can bear their hollow, needle-like fangs and puncture the unfortunate beasts’ hides, injecting a potent venom (5th lvl) that immobilizes within 1 – 3 minutes (5−15 minutes with RR failure 01 – 65) or kills (in 1 – 10 rds with RR failure of 66+).
Aside from its great speed, an Unbird relies on its cunning and horny body armor in combat. It has a ridge of pointed scales that protects its spine, and the scales on its back and sides are, as the name suggests, as tough as iron.
A two feet (60cm) long, cylindrical, grey, jawless fish, the Lamprey is a parasite that attaches itself to other creatures, like a leech with a circular maw. It then remains in place, slowly burrowing into the flesh and swallowing blood until sated (a wound from a Lamprey will bleed at a rate of two hits per round).
- Marsh Crocodiles
Swift but usually inactive, the Marsh, or “Fish-eating” Crocodiles are common in the wetter, warmer parts of Endor. They are inoffensive when let alone, but can be quite deadly when surprised (or hungry). Black, with green stripes and light blue undersides, these fifteen to eighteen feet (4,5 – 5,5m) long reptiles are colorful carnivores.
Its diet consists of large mammals and birds who enter or come to the edge of water in search of food or drink. After grabbing its prey in its long, powerful snout, the Marsh Crocodile drowns the victim and then tears the flaccid body apart with twisting bites. This involves spinning its entire body, but the beast is exceptionally agile when it is in the water.
The Marsh Crocodile spends its nights in the water and basks on the shore during the days the sun is out. It feeds on the average of once every two days. While swimming, it uses the rocks it swallows for ballast. Its nostrils and throat are equipped with flaps and valves that enable it to stay under water for extended periods without fear of intaking part of the marsh or river.
(Q. “Aelinilóke”, pl. “Aelinilóki”) — The twenty to forty feet (6-12m) Rain Drakes are related to the true Water-drakes found in the seas or the caves and caverns deep beneath Endor. They are less refined than their kin, however, since Rain-drakes spend a good deal of time in shallows or along the shore and are capable of moving (albeit slowly) on land. Living in the lakes and deeper, remoter rivers, all Rain-drakes dwell in fresh water. Most construct lairs in submarine caves, although a few make huge nests out of fallen trees, rocks and other natural debris. Dark blue and black, they have four, long, nimble claw-tipped fins and huge jaws that bristle of four inch long teeth.
In the Mûmakan, Rain-drakes are profoundly found in the Pel Dûshera.
- Vessino Clam
The Vessino Clam is a rare mollusk which is found only in the deep waters of the Haragaer and the southern Belegaer. A source of a valuable ingredient for a healing balm that soothes and heal burns, it is prized by Lay Healers and Medicinists. Its beautiful, silvery shell is also noted as an exquisite Ornament.
The Vessino is cultivated by the Hathorians because of the aforementioned properties. Other clams and Oysters are also cultivated in the shallows by the Kirani and Hathorians.
(Q. “Lingwilóke”, pl. “Lingwilóki”) — True Water-drakes are often referred to as Sea Serpents. There are both freshwater and saltwater varieties. These forty to seventy feet (12-21m) long hideous monsters can be found wherever the water is dark and deep. Most are deep blue or sea green in color and hard to see, particularly in the darkness. These creatures fear bright sunlight or fierce, unquenchable fires, so they rarely venture into shallows — particularly during the day.
All Water-drakes are agile swimmers who are capable of moving at speeds up to twenty knots (23mph, 37km/h). They move almost silently and can squeeze through very small passages in reefs or cavern systems. Using its keen senses, including a sonar-like organ like that found in porpoises, it can locate its prey under the worst conditions. Then it strikes with a burst of speed, as well as an uncanny sense of precision.
After successfully stalking a potential victim, the Water-drake can seize it with its six fin-claws or stun it with a blast of expelled water (treated as a Waterbolt). Should either of these methods fail to make the victim tractable, the Water-drake can then try an attack with its large mouthful of multirowed, four-inch (10cm) teeth. It uses these to crush its prey into flexibility and then swallows it more or less whole. A larger victim might call for even more forceful methods: the long head and tail of the Water-drake make an effective whip or noose (a larger Sea Serpent can even grapple and crush a small ship).
Aside from the aforementioned fear of fire, the Water-drake’s one weakness is its dislike of the disorienting effects of a stunning blow. Such an injury may cause the drake to flee.
One of the most dangerous fishes, the Wek-baas lives in the coral reefs of the region. The colorful water-beast counts as one of the most sought after poison raw materials in the Mûmakan region. Its spikes, when removed and prepared in the right way, make a powerful (lvl 9) poison which results in total paralysis (and death) in 1 – 3 minutes (RR failure 31+); degeneration of balance (-40) in 1 – 10 minutes (RR failure 16 – 30) or deep unawakable sleep for 2 – 9 hours (RR failure 01 – 15).
(Q. “Sarnúmen”, pl. “Sarnúmeni”) — Distantly related to the Red Maws (Q. “Carnantor”), they are large (male 3 feet · [90cm · ], female 6 feet · [1,8m · ]), hard-skinned, freshwater Eels. Their name is derived from their grey, horny, scales, which lend a Sarnúmen tremendous protection and enable them to burrow in riverbeds, camouflaging themselves as rocks. Since the mid-Second Age, when they came from their original home in Númenor and were carelessly introduced into the rivers and lakes of southern Endor, they have become the dominant hunter in the watershed of the Yellow Mountains (S. “Ered Laranor”; Q. “Orolanari”).
Covering more land in the Mûmakan than anything else are the vast, dim rainforests. Lining most of the shore areas, and extending far inland, they dominate the land and people. The jungle itself harbors a variety of animal and plant life, and so deserves the greatest attention. There are actually four distinct “layers” of vegetation within the rainforest: the herbs and ferns, which exist most heavily at the fringes, are the bottom. Above them also most prevalent at the edges of the jungle, are young trees not fully grown. Forming the jungle “canopy” are the vast majority of large trees 100 – 150 feet (30-45m) in height, with no branches until they reach a crown, and spread to meet their neighbors, forming an almost complete roof over the jungle floor, and thus inhibiting the growth of sunlight-dependent vegetation below. Above all rise the great “Lurakil”. The lord trees of the rainforest, growing to 200 feet (60m), and occasionaly even higher. The crowns of these trees spread above the unbroken roof of the forest canopy. It is in the Luraks that the Avar Elves of the region chose to build their elaborate arboreal homes. Within this framework are a myriad of floral types: strangler vines which grow tendrils to the ground, then establish their own root systems, gradually wrap around the host tree and strangle it. Other climbing vines do not harm their support, but merely use it to get closer to the precious sunlight. Thickets of mangrove trees and bamboo thrive at the forest edge, especially along rivers. It is important to keep in mind that, once one has fought his way through the dense underbrush at the edge of the rainforest there are few obstacles to the traveller: young trees and other undergrowth cannot survive in the dim light, and dead material is swiftly decomposed by he many fungi and lichens which grow on the forest floor. The deep jungle is a misty cathedral pillared with slender, buttressed trunks of great trees, their high branches interlacing into a translucent, shimmering vaulted ceiling. Within this awe inspiring setting exist an infinite variety of animal and insect types, some harmless, others not so. Among the most prevalent and obvious of the rainforest inhabitants are the brightly plumaged birds who make their homes in the trees. They are usually quiet during the day, but break out in a cacophony of cries at sunset. Snakes are common, mostly Constrictors growing to twenty-five feet (7,5m) in length, and lying in wait in shallow water or in tree branches until an unsuspecting victim draws too near, at which time they are able to strike and envelope with amazing speed for their bulk. Small mammals are abundant, including squirrel-like creatures with flaps of skin between their limbs which allow them to glide from tree to tree. Leopards and ocelots, kings of the jungle predators, are about but rarely in the human-inhabited areas. Many amphibious animals exist, especially frogs — and of note, the tree frog of Umak, whose skin exides a potent contact poison. Leeches are everywhere, and will attach hemselves to the unprotected feet and lower legs of an unsuspecting raveller.
Numerous diseases exist in the jungle, some of them quite deadly to man. Especially the Cycling Fever and the Sleeping Death plague the men of the Mûmakan. Naturally, the greatest population centers are found in areas where these diseases are less frequent.
A relatively rare fruit-bearing bush, Curfalaka grows in the swampier parts of the highland jungles and in the woods along the Mûmakan coast. When ingested, its soft, round, purplish fruit will heal 1 damaged (not destroyed) muscle in 3 – 5 hours (AF 6).
(Ap. “Usamiti”) Hard, dense, and often jet black in color, the Usamiti poduces wood which is often prized like jade or gold.
Gort is a jungle vine, a parasite known for its beautiful blue-green leaves and pleasant fragrance. Its lavender flowers grow quickly, reaching diameters of around 10 inch (25cm). Gort leaves contain a powerful intoxicant and, when ingested, produce hallucinations and euphoria (add +10 to user’s Pr for 2hrs, but afterwards user operates at –50 for 1 –10 hrs.; AF 20).
(Ap. “Lainimit”, pl. “Lainimitivi”) Reddish-brown or tan, hard Mahagony lumber is both beautiful and highly useful. The tree also produces medicinal leaves called Welwal. When ingested, they reduce the effects of being stunned by 3 rds. Mahagony is common and quite tall (up to 90 feet · [27m · ] in height), and serve as a major source of revenue in the Mûmakan region.
(Ap. “Shadamabo”) Heavy, hard, and reddish, Rosewood is used to produce sturdy furniture and durable spears. The tree itself is a tropical hardwood that reaches up to 100’ (30m) in height.
This hardy and unobstrusive brush is prized by all users of power in the Mûmakan. If a fresh fruit is eaten, all spell rolls of the imbiber (including ESF) receive a bonus of +20 for 1 hr. Correspondingly all physical maneuvers (including combat) receive a malus of –20. For each spell cast under the influence of Rud-tekma there is an unmodified chance of 10% of working on the nearest unintended target (AF 10).
(Ap. “Gumumiti”, pl. “Gumumutivi”) A tall, tropical hardwood, Teak is known for its resinous, yellow-brown wood. Teak trees grow to heights of 120 feet (36m) and are common throughout Tâliran and in the rainforests of Ûsakan. Shorter trees of the same species grow in the (relative) cool hilly regions throughout the Mûmakan. The Teak’s small, dark green leaves can be ingested as an herb. Called Witav, they reduce the effects of being stunned by 2 rds (AF 3).
Tarnas is a relatively rare, benign fungus that attacks Mahagony trees. It forms small, grey nodules on exposed areas of the trunk. These nodules produce a strong tea, a dose of which will repair any one damaged organ in 1 – 2 days. When imbibed, the tea also produces 1 – 10 hours of nausea (leaving the imbiber at –50; AF 60).
The beautiful and rare Yuth flower is highly sought after by the powerful of the region, because when properly prepared it serves as a powerful antidote (lvl 15) for all nerve poisons (AF 8).
The Elephant(Q. “Andamundar”) is the smaller and more numerous cousin of the famous Mûmak (see “Plains”). It rises to a height of about 10 – 13 feet (3-4m) at the shoulder and reaches a length of 18 – 23 feet (5,5-7m). Like all of its cousins, it has thick, pillarlike legs and flat, padded feet. Its loose skin and large ears (which flap) provide the Andamunda with excellent heat regulation, enabling it to adapt to a variety of ecosystems. The creature’s most notable feature, however, is undoubtedely its trunk: an elongated nose and upper lip that serves as both a sensory organ and as a prehensile grasping tool. An Andamunda uses its trunk to smell, gather food, drink, and as a weapon in combat.
Andamundar also have a pair of long tusks that they use in melee, but these giant teeth primarily serve as digging tools. Since Andamundar subsist on roots, shoots, twigs, fruit, leaves, and other edible vegetation, the tusks act as picks. A typical Andamunda eats about 400 pounds (180kg) of food each day, cutting with the tusks, grasping with its trunk, and placing the food in its mouth. Aside from one or two rest periods at night and a midday break, the great beast is always active, roaming about with a swinging gait in a constant search for security and food. This continual plodding, though, belies the Andamunda’s strength as a swift, agile runner. If aroused, it can run down and gore or bash a relative quick foe.
Unlike the Mûmak, the Andamunda has a slightly humped back and one (as opposed to two or three) fingerlike extension at the base of its trunk. It also has a gland at the side of its head that enables it to secrete, and divest itself of, scented waste. (This process usually occurs during the beast’s midday repose.) Like Mûmakil, female Andamundar travel in herds led by an elder matriarch. Each female bears but one offspring at a time (after 21 months gestation) and raises her calf for twenty-four to thirty months.
The Andamundar have been tamed and used for heavy work and war, just as the Mûmakil, but they cannot compare with the majesty and power of their greater brethren.
- Evil Fang
(Ap. “Ylcarcan”, pl. “Ûlcercain”) — These are large (six to nine inch · [15-23cm · ]), red, centipede-like creatures that move in hordes across the dense forests of southeastern Endor. Nocturnal creatures, they feed on rotting vegetation, insects, carrion, and (occasionally) live prey. They are extremely quick and are capable of scaling trees and swimming across placid water. Like ants, they operate in rigidly-defined social groups, if necessary swarming to defend their lairs. Ûlcercain generally reside in rotting logs.
Most are harmless to the Children of Ilúvatar; however, the “warriors” that comprise about twenty percent of any colony will attack virtually anything and anyone. Immobilized or sleeping folk need be careful around these creatures. Armed with powerful 1 inch (2,5cm) mandibles and a mild (Ivl 2) nerve venom, a group of Warrior Ûlcercain can slay and clean a Man in a matter of minutes.
- Grey Apes
(Ap. “Cijuvu Niavi”, pl. “Cijuvu Niavimi”; S. “Peredrûgwath”) — Grey, shaggy-haired, and heavily-built, Grey-apes are powerful beasts that live alone, in pairs, or in small family groups in the forests of the Mûmakan in southern Middle-earth. They stand up to 5 feet (1,5m) in height and weigh up to 300 pounds (135kg). The Grey Ape’s long arms reach to its ankles when it stands erect, and its broad hands have opposable digits. Coupled with its great upper body strength, these features enable them to swing from tree to tree and climb with amazing ease. Their short, relatively weak legs prevent them from running or walking efficiently. When they move about on the jungle floor, either upright or on all fours, they exhibit an awkward, halting gait.
- Grey Flyers
A slimy, silvery gliding frog, the Grey Flyer is a small but deadly amphibian. They carry a nasty venom (lvl 6; death in 10 – 100 minutes if RR is failed by 26+; nausea and nerve damage (-25) if RR is failed by 01 – 25) in their bluish claws. Grey Flyers are rare, living only in the depths of thick rain forests, but they live in huge colonies and woe to anyone who stumbles upon their nests!
- Leaf Frog
(Ap. “Umak”, pl. “Umakavi”) — The Leaf Frog is adapted for gliding from tree to tree. It has a broad head, a long, slim body, and elongated limbs with webbed feet. Flaps of skin fringe the forelimbs and heels, permitting the creature to extend its body and create a bizarre but effective set of “wings”. This bright red and blue frog grows no larger than about three inches (7,5cm) in length, but they are among the deadliest animals in the humid woodlands of southern Middle-earth. If touched, the contact poison exuded from the skin of the Umak will inject a strong (lvl 10) nerve poison which acts in 1 – 10 rds. A victim who fails his RR by 21 or more dies within 1 – 5 minutes, while one who fails by 11 – 20 becomes blind and falls into a coma. A RR failure of 01 – 10 leaves the victim blind in 1 – 2 eyes.
The Slow-fang is one of the most dangerous and dominant creatures in the rain forests of southern Endor. Large (9 feet; 2,7m) and exceptionally strong, it lives in trees and hunts large mammals and smaller reptiles. Its body coloration varies with the surface they happen to cross, although it is usually brownish and has mottled green stripes. They have friction pads on their feet, specialized scales that enable them to stick to vertical surfaces for indefinite periods. The Slow-fangs are naturally agile tree-climbers. This feature, however, impairs their movement on the jungle floor, and they are awkward runners; thus their name. Still, they can be quite deadly. Endowed with a strong, 6 feet (1,80m) long prehensile tongue that acts like a whip or bola, they can strike a foe quickly. Then they bite the immobilized victim with a pair of 4 inch (10cm) fangs, injecting a mild (3rd lvl) muscle poison (RR failure of 01 – 25 cuts movement rate by half; failure of 26+ disables victim). This gives the Slow-fang enough time to slowly discard any inedible trappings (e.g. clothing) before swallowing the meal in one long gulp.
In Apysaic, Stetan means “mischievous.” It applies perfectly to this otter-like creature. The beast’s body is as large as a dog (about 3 feet; 90cm), and it is as friendly and playful as the most lively of puppies. It has very short legs, though, so no one would mistake it for a hound.
The Stetan’s name was earned from men who journeyed into the wood, worked a long day gathering herbs, then saw their sacks and parcels playfully torn apart just before they returned home. Only their overpowering air of pure innocence keeps Stetanavi from being killed on sight by most men who glean their living from the wood. As it is, they are usually viewed as a sign of long-term good luck even if they are a short-term nuisance.
South of the Yellow Mountains, Stetanavi are found only in the western regions of Ûsakan.
The plains of the Mûmakan are barren by comparison to the jungles, but still harbor several plant and animal types. Most prominent of these are the Mûmakil themselves: giant elephants. Also on the plains graze gazelles and zebras, staples of the Mûmakanril diet as well as food for the jackals, wolves, lions and cheetahs who, incidentally, occasionally make a man part of their lining fare, although these predators are relatively scarce and never attack large groups of men. Plantlife is for the most part limited to endless grassy plains, broken by an occasional cluster of stunted trees or undergrowth. There are scattered wild grains, nuts and edible plants, which the Mûmakanril and Kirani harvest as they travel across the lands.
Another beneficial plant, Hegheg roots, when ground into a paste will heal all cartilage damage in the treated region in 3 – 30 hrs (AF 5).
One of the most useful plants in the Mûmakan. The brewed root of the Kilmakur grass will protect the user as a Heat Armor spell for 1 – 10 hrs. Given the climatic conditions in this region of Middle-earth, its advantages are obvious (AF 10).
A short citrus tree, the Slird produces a bright red fruit that resembles a lemon. Paste derived from the fruit is used by elite Mûmakanril in combat, since it is a fast-acting (Lvl 2) circulatory poison. It strikes victims in 10 – 20 seconds, paralysing 1 – 6 extremeties (head, genitals, hands, feet) for 10 – 100 days.
The pollen of the Vuraana plant, when properly prepared, make a weak respiratory poison (lvl 2), which gives 1 – 50 hits. Its ubiquitous nature and cheapness makes it one of the favorite poisons of Mûmakanril warriors.
Cheetahs are the fastest animals on four legs, being able to move at over 65 mph (105km/h) when dashing. The sleek body sits atop long, muscular legs; a lengthy tail helps it maintain balance during the chase. The cheetah picks out its prey from hiding, then stalks it and overtakes it with a quick dash. The victim is usually dispatched with a bite to the throat.
- Grey Wolves
The Grey Wolf (S. “Draugwath”, pl. “Draugwaith”; Q. “Mistanarmo”; pl. “Mistanarmor”; aka “Sindanarmo”) is a powerful, muscular Dog with a thick coat of black hair (in the Mûmakan) and a bushy tail. Grey Wolves are exceptionally social animals who live in family groups or packs that roam and hunt together. These packs cooperate to run down their favorite prey: generally Deer, sheep and gazelles. While typically interested only in larger herd animals, they also feed on rodents, fish, and crustaceans and, in rare cases (e.g. during famines), they may attack lone travellers, trappers, or hunters.
The wolfpack’s hierarchy is organized and regulated in accord with the Wolves’ ritualized postures, gestures, and combat. Grey Wolves, however, do not fight over mates except in extraordinary circumstances. Pairs normally remain together for life.
(Q. “Rá”, pl. “Ravi”) — Lions are characterized by their broad heads, large mane, and strong, thick legs. Surprisingly, most of their time is spent resting. They live in groups, called prides, which are commonly made up of 3 adult males and as many as 15 females and young. The lioness do most of the hunting, preying on antelopes, zebras and gazelles. Their hunting pattern consists of a period of stalking, followed by a quick chase and pounce. They kill by biting the neck.
(Ap. “Mûmak”, pl. “Mûmakil”) — The huge, fearsome, and majestic Oliphaunt is a close relative of the Andamunda (Elephant) and is often referred to as the Gorsandamunda (Q. “Giant Elephant”). It is the lord of Endor’s southern wilds. Growing up to thirty feet (9m) in length and standing up to 17 feet (5,20m) in height at the shoulder, they have no foes except man. Fortunately for their rivals, though, Mûmakil are vegetarians. Whenever they can these beasts live near the forest edge to spend a good deal of time by ponds and streams, bathing themselves. They rest in the midday heat and occasionally relax at night, but most of the time they roam in search of nutritious roots, leaves, shoots, twigs, and fruits. Using their agile trunks and huge tusks, which grow as long as 7’ (2,10m), they can reach through narrow clefts and dig through the toughest soils.
These social beasts travel in herds and adapt well (albeit reluctantly) to domestication. When aroused though, they can be deadly fighters. The Mûmakanril have long prized them as mounts for war. Unlike lesser elephantine beasts, the Mûmak relish battle and bloodshed. The Mûmakanril build great fighting towers to place on the backs of these largest of domesticated beasts and decorate the legs and tusks of the Mûmakil as well. A Mûmak fully arrayed for battle is an awesome, glorious, and terrifying sight. The thick hides of Mûmakil make them almost invulnerable to arrows, except for their eyes, but when blinded in this fashion, they often run mad with pain, trampling and destroying everything in their paths.
The hilly regions have more than the plains in the way of plant and animal life, partly because of the slightly cooler air and more evident water supply. This is true even in the low hills running as spines down the peninsulas in the Mûmakan; but the much cooler areas (where it is known to even snow on occasion) are limited to higher vales in the Yellow Mountains where coniferous trees begin to grow in numbers. Wild animal life here is limited to small rodents and an occasional deer or small bear, the latter two also usually only in the more northern areas. Plantlife is more healthy and abundant, including smaller versions of many of the jungle trees, as well as some of the medicinal herbs native to the area. Short grasses dominate uncultivated lands here, and in Hathor the domesticated sheep make full use of it as food. Fields of corn and cotton are common in the south, while wheat seems only to grow well in Dûshera and the higher elevations.
One of the most useful and common herbs in the Mûmakan, the sweet sap of this plant heals 2 – 12 hits within 5 minutes when ingested and doubles the healing rate for major wounds (AF 2).
The leaf of the Arnuminas plant, when properly treated and applied to damaged parts of the body, will double the healing rate for sprains, torn ligaments and cartilage damage (AF 8).
The Arunya bush is found in the short grass on the hills and is a powerful sedative. Correctly brewed and the liquid drunk, the root will cause sleep (2−3 hrs.) and quick unconsciousness. One hour of Arunya sleep equals 4 hrs. of normal rest (AF 50).
This moss has a very pleasant fragrance and the odor over a field of Berterin gives the wanderer lightness of heart and generally causes bad mood to disappear. In contrast to this it is widely used by morticians and embalmers, since organic material rubbed in with this moss will not deteriorate for 20+2d4 hours hrs. (AF 20).
The nut of the Cathaana bush is one of the most dangerous fruits in this region. When ingested the imbiber must make RR vs. a lvl 3 poison, failure resulting in mild euphoria (-50) for 1 – 10 rds. and destruction of the brain after 1 – 10 minutes.
The leaves of this useful and common herb double the healing rate for nerve damage when ingested (AF 4).
- Shep Hounds
Mostly found in the hilly areas of Hathor, dogs are popular shepherds throughout Middle-earth and the Mûmakan makes no exception. They endure harsh weather exceptionally well and perform even when fatigued. Most importantly, their great size, stealth and speed enable them to ward off predators.
The Sheep Hound is very loyal, intelligent and fierce. When equipped with a stout armored collar, it is a match for two or three wolves. A smaller breed is often seen as a pet for women and children.
- Wild Cat
The Wild Cat is the most prominent predator in the hilly regions of the Mûmakan, hunting small rodents which they chase and kill them with a bite from their strong jaws.
- Grey Wolves
This canine predator is a common sight in the hilly regions of the Mûmakan. For a description see 3.4 “Plains”.
The Yellow Mountains form the natural barrier against the arid lands to the north. The climate of this region is cold compared to the Mûmakan lowlands, because of the considerable elevation of this majestic formation (up to 10.500’; 3200m). Nonetheless, many species of plants and animals make their home here. Here alone in the Mûmakan are found greater numbers of bears and deer. The most notable animals of course are the Great Falcons, which are used as mounts by the Lords of Ardor. It is rumored that a unique breed of horses make their home in sheltered valleys of the mountains, but these are quite uncertain rumors.
The jungle reaches up to the foothills of the mountains, where it is gradually replaced by coniferous plants.
One of the hardier plants, this scrub can be found up to 7000’ (2130m) height. Its berry, when ingested will relieve the imbiber of 10 concussion hits with instant effect (AF 2).
The Reglen moss is found only in the the valleys of the Yellow Mountains, but there it can be encountered in great numbers. When properly brewed it makes an excellent healing potion that heals 50 hits over the course of 10 minutes (AF 7).
This rare lichen shows itself only in the highest reaches of the mountains. When ingested, it will repair a damaged nerve (not destroyed) in 1 – 4 hrs. (AF 15).
The Zaganzar bush contains the raw material for a gruesome poison. The bluish root extract (lvl 5) must be drunk to take effect. RR failure of 26+ will blind the victim by reducing the optic nerves to water (2−5 days) and gives 1 – 10 hits. Failure of 01 – 25 leaves the target with impaired vision (-35).
- Cave Bear
(Q. “Meglirondor”, sing. “Meglirondo”) — Cave Bears are huge beasts whose largest males weigh up to 2100 pounds (950kg) and measure up to 15 feet (4,50m) in length. They have rough, black fur, accented with brown stripes on the paws, ears, and faces. Their paws can snap a neck as easily as a dry branch, and their long claws can rip through light metal or any leather armor as easily as through linen. Fortunately, they are retiring creatures who like to eat all kind of plants (tubers, roots and berries), but do not scorn meat when it is easily attainable. Only rarely do Men or Dwarves get the opportunity to experience the blows of the Cave Bear.
Monogamous and family-minded, cave Bears frequently travel in small packs. Males travel alone, but the females prefer company and will not leave their cubs until they are grown.
- Cliff Lion
(Ap. “Simbaliva”) — The snowy-white Cliff Lion lives in the rocky regions of the Yellow Mountains. Solitary creatures, they dart away unless hungry, cornered or surprised. They are hard to confront, given their preference for virtually sheer terrain, remote rocky clefts, and caves. Normally active in the morning and evening, they roam the highlands and coastal fells in search of goats, sheep, rodents or carrion. Cliff Lions stalk their prey, and then strike with swift bites to the mapes of their victim’s necks.
(Q. “Lóki”, sing. “Lóke”) — Only in the remotest valleys of the Ered Laranor dragons are suspected. Since no one has been seen for centuries, it is believed that they are either all dead or hibernating.
Physically, these so-called Giant-Worms vary in size and appearance. Some slither or crawl; others run or fly. Most have vision that surpasses that of the most keen-sighted of birds, while others can perceive smells better than a bear. All share a common heritage, though, and have scaly hides, two to four horns, and long, serpentine bodies. Those with limbs have four to six appendages, although two may be modified to support wings. Razor-like talons crown their nimble digits.
- Great Falcons of Ardor
These fierce creatures are the preferred mounts of the Lords of the Air in the Court. They were perhaps developed from the Great Falcons of Mirkwood. This fact should have been known to Sauron, who could have shared his knowledge with the evil Elda Court. The fiercest of these Falcons were tied to specific Windlords by magical means. Their loyalty to their masters is unswerving, and no one else could ride them unless they could somehow overcome the will of the Falcons by magical means.
- Short-eared Owls
A rare day-hunting Owl, the Short-eared Owl is quite small. Like many other Endorian birds, however, it is an intelligent and perceptive creature. They were taught by the Elves to speak and have their own language. One who is close to Nature can derive helpful information from them.
(Q. “Vilwarokko”; W. “Airhorse”) — Remote mountain valleys secure privacy for the shy pegasus. Meadow grasses and flowers underfoot, winds whistling through the peaks above, and the company of its own kind satisfy the simple desires of this winged horse. Those who leave willingly in search of adventure form friendships, finding pleasure in carrying these friends on their backs.
Pegasi are unknown to virtually anyone. Only those loremasters who have studied the Kelvar most intensively have hints of the existence of these beasts. It is thought that Melkor, while dwelling in Utumno tried to produce flying creatures that would serve him equally in the air or on land. So he took horses and with foul sorcery bred them to grow wings. But before he could complete his project the horses escaped with the aid of an elven captive who felt pity with those noble beasts. Ever since then they hid away from the Children of Ilúvatar, living only in remote alpine valleys but never forgetting the elven help. In the Mûmakan, their single herd is known only to Ardûval who made friendship with them and uses them for transportation. In Menelcarca, anytime there is room for three of the flying horses.
Being touched by Morgoth’s sorcery they are subconsciously attracted to others also of this alignment (though they never would willingly serve any known servant of him).
The swamp of Geshaan is similar to the rainforest, but out of control. The ground is uncertain, and often submerged under scummy water of uncertain depth. There are more breaks in the “canopy” because of the instable floor, and so more fallen trees. Huge vines and overgrown underbrush make passage almost impossible at times. In additon to this there are snakes, alligators, huge poisonous lizards, and large insects, many carrying the Cycling Fever or Sleeping Death. The frequency of these and other nasty diseases in the Mûmakan is highest in this area, so it is shunned by virtually all men. Additionally, the legends of evil sorcery and bad luck associated with this area scare off the last adventurers who might come here.
More than any other realm in the Mûmakan area save Tantûrak (and recently, Mûmakan), Koronandë is a united country. Also worthy of mention is the fact that the government of Koronandë is a republic, extremely rare in Middle-earth. The realm as such was founded early in the Second Age, and throughout most of its history, was able to remain independent of the various conquerors invading the area. In times of great peril, some of the Koronandën legislators and governors rely on (disguised) Elven advisors, who often survive several turnovers of a office (if times are so hard), being excellent noncommittal sources of information and wisdom. Many of these advisors are sympathizers or members of the Guild of Elements, but they restrain themselves from governing the realm “behind the throne” like the “Magician” does in Tantûrak. In some ways they act just like the Istari.
The capital of Koronandë is Korlan, on the mouth of the Koros river. The realm is divided into six districts. Each having its own principal town and governor. The Senate consists of twelve members, two from each of the districts, who meet monthly for three days to decide matters of concern to the realm as a whole. The Republic has a strong navy, the only one in the region which can contest that of Tantûrak — no doubt part of the reason that country attacked them more than once, and the reason those attacks failed. They are the traders of the Mûmakan area and, not surprisingly, Korlan is the main trading city, and a center of commerce. The realm is the prime mercantile power in the South and uses this economic power to further its political goals.
Koronandë is a fairly dense settled country. All the land not covered by jungle is dotted with Kirani settlements and consequently the realm can muster a sizeable armed force if the need arises. Apart from that their rich economy gives them enough cash to carry many mercenaries over extended periods of time.
Koronandë is firmly allied with Hathor and this alliance fields a sizeable force to be reckoned with. Additionally its economic strength gives the realm the power to influence many other countries. The Koronandën colonies in Mórenore stand firm to their mother country and this makes the Koronandë-Hathor alliance a major power in the central Far South.
The six districts of Koronandë are:
Today more than ever, the Mûmakanril are simple to the point of barbarism (politically), and especially recently, supply their needs by raids on adjacent Tuktan, Koronandë and Hathor. The most important social framework still is the tribe, an extremely large extended family structure, ruled by the oldest living male. All tribes meet annually at the religious center of the land — Amaru, a holy place where the tribes receive official orders from the king, interact, trade, and arrange marriages. Above all, they pray to their god Amaav, who it is said speaks to them of their purpose and future. The Mûmakanril, it should be noted here, make (and made!) extensive use of a huge animal both as beast of burden and as a terrible war machine: the Mûmak, also called the great elephant.
Since the end of the First Age, when the ancestors of the Mûmakanril moved to the area, they have been one of the most despised inhabitants of the region: warlike, aggressive, brutal and a little primitive (compared to the advanced Kirani and Hathorians). Until S.A. 2010, the Mûmakanril were a somewhat disorganized (in terms of central government) people and only a short-time nuisance to their neighboors. All this changed in that fateful year: The exiled Jí Indûr of Korlan proclaimed himself (with the aid of one of the Nine Rings of Power) the returned God-King Amaav and began to build a strong central government and a powerful army. Within a few decades, Mûmakan was one of the most powerful realms in the regions and contested the might of the Númenoreans and the Court (albeit indirectly). After the War of the Last Alliance and his disappearance into the Shadows, Mûmakan once again became a realm of warring tribes (under the partial influence of Gorthaur).
The vast elevated plain of central Mûmakan is a savanna, the outskirts of which are punctuated by irregular rocky hills. The northern half of the plain is dominated by the Kann-Shamûrda, a collection of vast lakes. The Mûmakanian uplands descend into small coastal plains covered with dense tropical rainforest. The climate of the whole region is subtropical and dry, making it a suitable home for lions, leopards, jackals, rhinos, giraffes, zebras, antelopes and, of course, the huge mûmakil from which the land derives its name.
Twelve tribes make up the Mûmakanril, each of which consists of a number of clans. The twelve tribes are further grouped according to the kind of environment they typically live in (which leads to shared lifeways and a strong feeling of unity). The largest and most traditional tribal grouping are the Zamaril, semi-nomadic savanna-dwellers. The second group, the Krâlakril, live in or near the borders of the rainforests. Though fewer than the Zamaril, the Krâlakril live in more populous settlements, supported by great numbers of slaves who cultivate food as well as cash crops (e.g., tobacco and fruit) for the warrior class. The third group of tribes are the Sîril, who live near the coasts. A bit more civilized than their kinsfolk, the Sîril often act as traders with neighboring peoples, though most live by fishing and hunting.
The following is a listing of the tribes together with a short characterization of each tribe.
Tribal Group: Krâlakril.
Region of Origin: eastern hill-country of Mûmakan.
Present Territory: Sekâk and the neighboring islands east of the Ivory Peninsula.
Leader: Môrav (chieftain).
Tribal Group: Zamaril.
Region of Origin: southern savannas of Mûmakan.
Present Territory: E-Sorûl Sâre from the original Sâric capital Jenna-Lakh.
Leader: Abûshan (chieftain).
Tribal Group: Zamaril.
Region of Origin: Mîmakai hill-country.
Present Territory: Hathor and the Mûlambûr. Their original capital was Batamak, but they rule their provinces from Tanith, the former Hathorian capital.
Leader: Morbâta (chieftain).
Tribal Group: Zamaril.
Region of Origin: western frontiers of Mûmakan.
Present Territory: Kiranâi-lâr (Koronandë) and the border regions of Tálirán. Their capital is the fortress of Mamûri. They are warlike followers of Mûbadar and have always been the arch-enemies of the Kiranâi.
Leader: Kamak (champion). Their former chieftain died during the Mûmakanian conquest of the Sunlands (TA 2906 – 2937).
Tribal Group: Krâlakril.
Region of Origin: Originally the mightiest tribe of Mûmakan and fanatical followers of Hagama, the Mârani were the leaders of the Krâlakril group and their highest chieftain was the accepted as king of the Sîril and Zamaril tribes, which the Mârani ruled from their fortress-capital of Mûmarak. When Jí Indûr came to the Mûmakan as the reincarnated Amáv, he gained control of the Mûdhalasôram and made them the leading tribe. The Mârani never fully accepted the loss of their former power, and their rivalry with the Mûdhalasôram led to the War of Heretics (TA 500‑1200). The Mârani were never able to regain their old position.
Present Territory: the islands of Llikh and the neighboring Sealands.
Tribal Group: originally Zamaril, but during the Second Age they rose to power among the tribes and became the most trustworthy servants of Mûdhala and Jí Amáv (Indûr).
Region of Origin: the Kann-Shamûrda plateau.
Present Territory: Gan and Tuktan. Their capital (and that of all Mûmakan) is the holy city of Amaru.
Leaders: Shidûr and Ûkan (kings, the two highest warlords of Jí Amáv).
Tribal Group: Zamaril.
Region of Origin: the northern hill-country.
Present Territory: Drênad, from their traditional capital Nûlakad. Traditional enemies of the Tuktanâi, they were responsible for the extermination of the latter’s nobility after the conquest of their realm in TA 2916.
Leader: Amávlar (chieftain).
Tribal Group: Sîril.
Region of Origin: the southeastern coastal forests of Mûmakan.
Present Territory: They rule the Black Númenórean colonies and Kiranaic trading outposts on the northern coast of Ûgruzâyan. They are mainly fishermen and are relatively skilled seafarers. The Ôkama are followers of the ûmala Akawa and are friendly with the people of the city of Pharabâs, with whom they are akin.
Tribal Group: ?
Region of Origin: the southern rainforest of Mûmakan.
Present Territory: the islands of Mûlambûr and the few Kiranâi cities of Ûgruzâyan. Their original capital was Dûrlam, but the Sôrbahlam found it easier to rule their lands from the fortress of Bûramak on the main island of Mûlambûr. They are followers of the ûmala Lakabah.
Leader: Marai (chieftain).
Tribal Group: Sîril.
Region of Origin: the southeast cape of Mûmakan.
Present Territory: the islands of Kírakh and most of the Irakh chain. They are a bit more peaceful than the other Mûmakanian tribes and often act as traders, which is one of the reasons they are friendly with the city of Pharabâs.
Leader: Shalâr (high priest of their tribal ûmala Akawa).
Tribal Group: Krâlakril.
Region of Origin: the Amba Mûdaka jungle.
Present Territory: Dûshera and the borderlands of Geshán. Their capital is the sanctuary of Ûmakad, where the Mûmakanian kings are entombed. They are fanatic followers of Makûma and their highest mûmathumûr is traditionally also the makûbar of the Mûmakan and counselor of its kings.
Leader: Tûru Makûbar (high priest of Makûma).
Tribal Group: Sîril.
Region of Origin: the southern shores of the Bay of Gan.
Present Territory: Ahava and the Sealands around the Isle of Fate. Mightiest of the Sîril, they live mostly by fishing and hunting, and are relatively experienced seamen. It was they who subjugated the seafaring nation of Gan and took control of their fleet, enabling the Mûmakanril to conquer most of the Southern Archipelago.
Leader: Abûdur (high chieftain).
Tantûrak is one of the various Arûwana realms in the South (although one of the most powerful). The capitol city is Sarûl, which lies on the eastern side of the mouth of the Uvar river. Based here is the formidable navy of Tantûrak, for these people took with them many of the skills of their Númenorean ancestors.
Tantûrak is ruled by an emperor, a hereditary office held by the ruling elite of (at least partially) Arûwain stock. Over time dynasties have changed but the attitude remains the same (partially due to the machinations of the ‘Magician’). Present day Tantûrak is characterized by the claim of supremacy for the region south of the Yellow Mountains as well as the demand of submission of all other Arûwain realms in southern Middle-earth in general. These goals are quite ambitious but nonetheless it’s the official policy.
A Númenorean trading outpost founded in S.A. 1792 by the future Tar-Ciryatan, Tantûrak was one of the most southerly of the Númenorean settlements on the Middle-earth continent proper, and was relatively cut off from the more northerly realms, with the exception of some trading contacts. From the beginning, the people of Tantûrak chose to be a separate entity from the other, more loosely or federal governed areas of the Mûmakan. Originally dominating the northeast corner of the Ûsakan bay, Tantûrak is flanked by rolling hills on both sides and mountains to the north, providing natural defensive barriers. All forests within Tantûrak are lush rainforests which dominate the entire Koros peninsula as well as Ûsakan. Of all the peoples of the Mûmakan area, the Tantûraki chose the most ambitious (and insensitive) method of dealing with the jungle: they burned and cleared large areas within the rainforest and along the coast, and here established their settlements. This clearing had two goals: to gain agriculturally usable land and providing timber comprised of valuable tropical woods for the homecountry.
Why the Númenoreans elected to place themselves in the more warm, humid section of the Mûmakan (when cooler climates in the mountainous foothills of the Ûsakal forest were available) is unclear, until one is enlightened to the tales of the ‘Uvag-Aak’ (Ap. “Drinkers of Blood”), strange, apelike creatures which inhabit the northern and northwestern section of the Ûsakal forest. At first, the Númenoreans were undaunted by the warnings of the few Kirani who lived in that area at the time, who spoke of the terrifying shadowy monsters who would come out of the forest at night and silently kidnap men, women and children alike; and the next day their bodies, then bloodless husks, would be found just outside of the settlement. Soon the Tantûraki were convinced, for there was no way stopping the Uvag-Aak, and the few times that they managed to kill one of the monsters brought a terrible retribution within the week. It was discovered, however, (the hard way) that the Uvag-Aak would not disturb anyone who stayed outside of the northwestern half of the forest, so the Númenorean colonists moved south and east.
Concerning the government of the realm, there is a story of an interesting, if perhaps predictable transformation. At first there was, as is true of most of the colonies, a royal governor, who at least in theory answered to the King in Númenor. This system worked quite well for some seventeen hundred years, the governorship turning over twenty-six times until, around S.A. 2000, the “Magician” arrived in Tantûrak. The date is uncertain for he came with little fanfare and rose quietly, albeit swiftly, through the ranks of the governor’s advisors. He built up his position and bided his time. In the late Second Age he saw his chance to strengthen his position even further. This particular governor at the time, a cousin of the king Ar-Zimrathôn, was particularly susceptible to the silky corrupting words of the the Magician, as his lust for power and glory was great. Soon the Magician was his chief advisor, and in S.A. 3010, the governor declared himself King of Tantûrak, taking the name Ar-Kinjaarn, and severed all political ties with Númenor. This move was greeted with great enthusiasm by the populace, as the taxes imposed by the mother country had inflated greatly over the last few decades. The coming of the ‘Magician’ signalled the beginning of Tantûraki imperialism.
After the fall of Númenor, the king declared himself an emperor and made Tantûrak an empire to emphasize his claim as the political leader of the Southern Arûwain realms. Unfortunately for him, all these other states did recognize Tantûrak’s empire him but denied his supremacy.
Since the end of the Second Age it has been a steady decline into corruption for the government, and a subtle, yet definite shift in attitude by the Tantûraki towards the native Elven and Kirani populations, from disdain to outward hatred and jealousy, for the lifespans of the Tantûraki population began to lessen even as did those of the people of Númenor. This racial hatred resulted in the declaration of war, without provocation, by the emperor of Tantûrak against the Koronandë Republic in T.A. 1365. The outcome was inconclusive, but only served to intensify the loathing by the Númenorean descendants, and cause new apprehension among the Elves and Kirani about the safety of their position.
Dûshera is for the most part inhabited by a mix of ruddy-complexed mortals living as far north as just south of the Pel Dûshera (the lake in the northern part of the land) and along the base of the low mountains flanking the area in small independent hill towns. Thus it is not a realm as such, although at one time the towns were united under a Lord at Gaven in Geshaan (that city now lost to the swamps). Dûshera is most noteworthy for its insignificance in local politics. One might assume a strategic location south of the two important passes also would favor a strong realm but on a second glance one sees that all important trade routes are located on the eastern and southern side of the lake. The only major route through their territory runs on the Koros river, but it is dominated by the Kirani of Koronandë and Tuktani of … This leaves Dûshera a backwater of the region, a role which is quite welcomed by its inhabitants. Were any of the major powers in the mood to incorporate it permanently into his realm it would meet almost no resistance.
A sparsely settled land, once also including the area known as Geshaan (see below). So Dûshera has no history as a realm worth of mentioning. Since the First Age the population has lived in the same way as they do by now, but it seems this situation will change in the not so far future (s.b.). The country has been a puppet for his more powerful neighboors and its alliances change with the shifting of the supreme power. In general the land is used as a agricultural ressource for its foreign masters.
Encompassing all of the oval shaped rainforest area to the east of Geshaan, Tuktan is an interconnected web of Kirani towns, loosely knit and united by a very informal central government consisting of a council of seventeen “Jilhani” (village leaders). The Jilhan council meets semiannually, or if a threat to the realm as a whole warrants it. Otherwise each Jilhan rules his town as he sees fit, and all engage in a lively trade amongst themselves and with adjacent Koronandë. It is in the Tuktan forest alone that the Jeedic Teak trees flourish, and their wood is prized. Not surprisingly, Tuktan wood craftsmen are very skilled and their furniture and bows are highly sought after. Tuktan composite bows can bring a price many times the average, and are said to be superior to any other, save powerful magical bows.
The decentralized government makes the realm vulnerable to aggression by its neighboors (especially Mûmakan). In such a case the Jilhan council appoints an Interrex who reigns the realm for a fixed duration. Additionally during such crises the Tuktani tend to ally themselves closer with Koronandë and Hathor. This is the case in the time of this campaign as Mûmakan’s power is again ascending.
The region was settled during those times when the ancestors of the Kirani founded Koronandë. Those not content with the creation of a central government moved northeast to found their own realm of a loose federation which they thought to be nearer to their original nature. In spite of frequent conquest by foreign powers (especially Mûmakan) they retained their structure, but today many of the inhabitants think it would be better to join their brethren in Koronandë as it is the lesser of two evils. They do not belive any potential ally strong enough to prevent their realm from being overrun by Mûmakan.
Hathor is an enigma in the Far South. Inhabited by fair-skinned people it stands as one of the two realms generally opposing the Shadow in its various forms (the other being Koronandë). It is traditionally ruled by a king who has his seat in the capital of Tanith. Because of the rich soil the land is densely populated, resulting in a high manpower of the realm’s army (compared to the size of the land). Being fiercely independent, Hathors power is rarely used offensively and then only to reclaim lands appropriated by others.
As is obvious to anyone studied in the ways of mannish races, the Hathorians are not native to their land. Blond and blue eyed, with naturally fair skin (though tanned by the sun) they apparently migrated to their present land long ago, although certainly not by sea (at least voluntarily).
A united kingdom since the late Second Age, the realm is traditionally ruled by a monarch out of the capital city of Tanith, Hathor is somewhat of an enigma for a realm on a peninsula. It didn’t show any expansionist tendencies once the borders of the realm were laid down, and the Hathorians were content and remained in their land. Being fiercely independent, they managed to remain free of foreign domination for nearly all times in their history.
The story how the Hathorians came to the Utter South is detailed in the chapter about the Hathorian people.
A realm of Tatyarin and a minority of Nelyarin Avar Elves, Tâliran is the only truly Elven land in the area since the total destruction of Dînsûlinor. In fact, a few refugees from that land now live in Tâliran, the rest abandoning Middle-earth entirely for the Undying Lands (only a very few) in the West, becoming Lingerers or being killed by the Court. Ruled as it has been since its founding in the First Age by Tûranar, a lord of Tatya people from the East, Tâliran is a self-contained country, remaining aloof from local politics.
As may be expected, the Elves inhabit the forested areas of Tâliran, constructing beautiful and elaborate homes in the branches of the huge trees, which often grow to heights exceeding 200’ (60m) the greatest example of which is Taurondë, the capital of the realm. Occasionally they ally themselves with Koronandë for they deem the Kirani of that realm the most noble mortals in the region. In such cases the help is mostly subtle (e.g. elven advisors). Only in the direst of circumstances do the king marches to war. Even this subtle kind of help is atypical for Avari (and especially Tatyar) towards the sun-loving men, but the circumstances in this region are atypical (to say the least) as well.
Early in the Second Age, a few Sindarin refugees from Menegroth (and the Havens of Sirion), unwilling to leave Middle-earth (and despising Noldorin “paternalism” in the Northwest) migrated south and settled in Tâliran. These knew of the southern realm through Fëatur who wished the Guild to be strengthened. Soon they were given high ranks within the realm of the Kinn-lai who were pleased to delegate much of the burden of government to their more organized Elda brethren. This was only possible by the liberal attitude of Tûranar because a great part of his people did not like the Eldar very much. Indeed this act led some Kinn-lai to join the Court as had many of their cousins in the First Age. It is here that the majority of the users of “magic” (as men call it) can be found, no doubt one of the major reasons that Tâliran has not been threatened by Tantûrak, or any other realm for that matter.
Once the center of a wealthy kingdom, Geshaan suffered by far the worst of the lands of the Mûmakan when the earth shook with the fall of Angband and the drowning of Beleriand. The level of the land sank and water collected there, but not into a lake, as it might. Instead, a swamp formed: an unclean place of rotting trees and creatures of darkness. The Koros river and the areas just flanking it are suitable for travellers, for it is a swift current and permits no collection of foul refuse; but further in, where the land is uneven and pools and mires collect, all manner of things grow. Within lies the ruins of the city of Gaven and somewhere, the forgotten complex of Ty-Ar-Rana.
Not really a true realm of the Mûmakan, Ardinaak is nonetheless worthy of mention. Originally part of Tantûrak, and indeed an important naval base during the realm’s youth, Ardinaak was struck by a sudden and mysterious plague in S.A. 1888. Within days everyone was dead. Histories tell that the witnesses who fled the island after the first signs of the plague had seen a glow all over the rocks of the island. Those who were unfortunate enough to be looking at it became blind over the course of a few days. Then, within days people began to grow ill, and their skin became mottled. Even those that had escaped the isle immediately after the glow soon died on the mainland, although they did not transmit the disease to others. No one has returned to Ardinaak since, according to records. It was speculated that what struck the isle was not a disease, but an immensely powerful curse of some sort. At any rate, the land is associated with death, and its name is not spoken, and no one knows if the curse is still alive or what kind of curse it was and for what reasons.
The region now known as Gan was settled in the fourth and fifth century century of the Second Age by the ancestors of the Ganim. Relative latecomers to the region, nonetheless they proved hardy and carved out a realm that encompassed those arable lands not covered by jungle. Because of their relative isolation (by land), soon they began to build boats and explored other lands of the region. Over the years they refined their skills and today they are renowned shipbuilders in the region, envied by many and courted by all realms. The capital of Tû-Makaar lies on a low ridge of the Yellow Mountains on the Bay of Gan. It is mainly here where their famous ships are built. Because of their geography and skills, they were often attacked and conquered by Mûmakan, but retained a spirit of independence and never accepted the Mûmakan way of life wholly. At times when Mûmakan is weak the pro-Mûmakan tendencies within society vanish relatively quick.
The realm of Ûsakan was founded early in the Second Age. Following the great migration of men, the ancestors of the Ûsakani came to this land (mainly through the Cleft of Goats, a minority through the “Dwarf Pass” of the central Ered Laranor which eventually reached the sea and built the boats which brought them across the bay which still bears their name) and settled it within one hundred years. Being on the fringe of the major political centers, Ûsakan followed a policy of non-interference with its more active neighbors and allowed them to use their services. In this manner, the king was able to fend off the occasional and half-hearted attempts (mainly from Tantûrak) of conquest.
In the seventh century of the Third Age, however Tantûrak made a serious attempt for extending its western border. In the course of this campaign, the Ûsakani king surrendered before the might of the Arûwana army. By doing so, he was able to avoid outright conquest and became a subject state of Tantûrak. In T.A. 1076 the last king died without a heir, and a truce was signed that the Tantûraki emperor became the Ûsakan king. This personal union cemented the close bond that remains stable between these two nations until the present.
Mag and Tumag
The regions of Mag and Tumag were settled by the Magri in the fourth and fifth century of the Second Age when their ancestors migrated into these lands, chiefly by the Cleft of Goats. They are related to the Drel and Pel of the Seven Lands in the uttermost southwest of Middle-earth (see ICE’s Shadow in the South). While Tumag remained fractioned into several petty lordships throughout its history of the Second and Third Age, In Mag one unified realm emerged after the crushing defeat at the hands of Imrazôr II of Pel. This was Sparta who developed a martial tradition following the defeat. In the following years of the Third Age it is the principal power that denies Ûsakan (and thereby Tantûrak) easy access into the southwestern peninsula of Middle-earth. Once a relative inconspicuous collection of villages and tribes as many others, they radically changed their lifestyle and society to prevent any repitition of the former defeat.
They managed to remain independent for their entire history until the late Third Age, when Tantûrak conquers vast portions of their land.
Mablâd-dûm and Nárad-dûm
The Dwarves of Bávors Folk reached the Yellow Mountains in the distant past long before the rising of the sun and the moon. They established their capital at the city of Mablâd-dûm in the west-central Ered Laranor during the end of the Second Age of Melkor’s captivity in Mandos. Over the years they expanded their realm, founded colonies and established trading relations with the Avari of the region. In these years they prospered and discovered many caches of wealth within the mountains.
At the beginning of the second millenium of the Second Age strife raged through the tribe and the king (then Bávor II.) was killed in the fray. The tribe splitted up into three factions: the first remained in their ancient halls, the second (and greatest) went southwestward and founded the city of Blackflame and the third (and smallest) went west and founded the dwelling at Nárad-dûm.
Since this time, there has been relative peace among the Naugrim of Bávors Folk and indeed they flourished as the example of the prosperity of Blackflame shows.
Right-click and choose "Save link target as" for the .markdown files.